General discussion on the soil carbon opportunity

Here is a forum for general discussion.

Dear Coalition

I have been on about putting carbon into the soil for nearly 20 years,
I am glad every one else is finaly catching up.If you want to retain lots of carbon in the soil you need to add organic matter that when it breaks down it releases lots of nitrogenous nutrients into the soil.
The trouble with just adding carbon is that there is only one nutrient for the Bio mass to make saccaharin and other protein with.As I have always used saw dust it is aproximately two third carbon and also has 60 to 70 other nutrients with in it.
It also provides lots of other food for the Soil Bio mass and any plants growing in the soil.There are lots of other uses for carbon to benefit the biosphere as well. A couple of years ago I wrote a paper on this subject; I have attached it to this Email. The paper is called Algae and the C to N Ratio.
This is because the soil and the rest of the Biosphere operate on the Carbon to Nitrogen Ratio, if you have this ratio right in the soil you have far less insect attack and deseases affecting the plants growing in the soil.

Cheers

Wade Mann

Wade Mann
PO Box 756
Yeppoon QLD 4703
Ph: 0749383434
julie117@optusnet.com.au

ALGAE AND THE C TO N RATIO by Wade Mann

In regards to the algal bloom problem that we have in our waterways, dams and oceans, the common belief is that this is caused by far too many nutrients making their way to the water. If this was true the worlds oceans would have been covered in algae since the beginning of time, because salts in the oceans are just precipitated nutrients and the ocean has always got an excess supply of nutrients.

The actual algae growth is caused by the breakdown of excess amounts of soft tissue organic matter, such as grasses, manures, flesh, the build up of leaves in virgin forests and vegetable scraps and over planting of exotic legumes, as well as the over use of nitrogenous fertilizers.
When all these types of organic matter break down it releases large amounts of amino acids, and lesser amounts of carbon. Then most of these amino acids are turned into ammonia carbonate, some of this ammonia carbonate is then mineralized into oxidized ammonia, which can be used by bacteria to produce algae growth. This oxidized ammonia can also be taken up by plant roots as the rest of the ammonium carbonate can be turned into a gaseous nitrogen.
This process is carried out by the nitro sumonis bacteria. The gaseous nitrogen is then turned into nitrate; this process is carried out by the nitro bacter bacteria, and can also be carried out by the syno bacteria.
All these processes are carried out through enzymic hydrolysis and after the nitrates have been produced within the soil, it can be immobilized and turned back into gaseous nitrogen, or it can be taken up by a plants root system and if it is not immobilized or taken up by a plants root system it can be stored in the soil by connecting to a iron or aluminum oxide by a weak electro static force.
For example under a pile of grass clippings or compost heap excess amounts of nitrogen will be getting produced. When the grass clippings or the soil surface under these clippings are washed into a dam, creek, river or ocean along with all the nitro producing bacteria you end up with toxic amounts of nitrogenous nutrients in the water ways. Most nitrogen is produced in the top 10cm of soil, considering this fact the nitrogen cycle also operates at it’s optimum rate at between 28 and 33 degrees. As the water surface starts to heat up in these water ways and the ocean, the nitrogen cycle starts to work and algae will start to bloom.

They have discovered lots of different ways to help rid the water ways of this algae, such as barley straw, hay, saw dust as well as bio dynamic 500 will do the job if it is mixed up at twice the strength, and they have also discovered that mulched up crustacean shells can also rid the water ways of algae. All these different ways of ridding the water ways of algae have one thing in common, that is that they all contain high amounts of carbon, except for the crustacean shells, they contain carbon but not in excessive amounts as they mainly consist of calcium carbonate. These crustacean shells containing lesser amounts of carbon can take up to six weeks to rid the water ways of algae which is a slow process when the same solution can be achieved a lot quicker by applying pure carbon.

They say that phosphate also plays a role in algal blooms, but I cannot see how phosphate can play a role in algae growth as it gets absorbed into a mineral called fluro appetite and cannot be reversed to make phosphate available for algae growth. Phosphate might help the algae in creating it’s colour but that’s about it.
If you add carbon to any type of algae the algae will start to disappear rapidly and if you keep adding carbon it will bring it all back into balance. If you only add certain amounts of carbon and the algae turns red that is when the carbon to nitrogen ratio within the algae is at 50% each, so if you keep adding carbon the algae will become neutralized and the water will become crystal clear again.
Mother earth uses a carbon to nitrogen ratio of approximately 70% carbon to 30% nitrogen.

This c to n ratio can change depending on the season. As in an Australian spring, our native trees lose more leaves then wood during this period as these leaves break down they release more nitrogenous nutrients.
As wood and lignum breaks down it releases more carbon than nitrogen which helps keep the organic matter in balance.
If all this organic matter is allowed to build up the leaves can trap the nitrogen that has built up under the leaves, the soil biomass can then use some of these excess nitrogenous nutrients as well as the carbon as a food source. As for the excess nitrogen and organic matter it is eventually washed into the waterways.
One other problem that this build up of organic matter can cause in the virgin forest is that it can provide the flora with toxic levels of nitrogen which allows the leaves to become soft and very palatable for the insects to eat. Once the majority of the leaves are eaten this will allow sunlight through to the forest floor. This is very prevalent in a rainforest situation. If not burnt off it builds up over the years releasing more and more nitrogen into the soil. When it rains all this organic matter, and the nitrogenous nutrients along with the surface soil is washed into water ways and oceans and if the temperature is right algae will start to grow. If all this organic matter was burnt off the carbon left from the fires would feed the soil organisms and you would have a healthier soil and having less organic matter on the soil surface will release the nitrogen back into the atmosphere. Because at the moment we have got too much carbon within the atmosphere and to much nitrogen in the soil as we are supposed to have 70% to 80% nitrogen within the atmosphere and the carbon is supposed to be in the soil. This problem of having too much potential nitrogen within the soil is what is causing the algae blooms.

During cooler weather such as winter, there is limited amounts of algae growth but all these nitrates are still in the waterways. All you have to do is obtain a sample of water and place in an incubator and set the temperature between 20 and 40 degrees and the algae will start to grow. Just remember the optimum temperature for the nitrogen cycle to work is between 28 and 33 degrees. Between these two temperatures is when you will get maximum algae growth, it is the warm water which causes the actual algae to bloom.
The actual cause of the algal blooms is the excess amounts of nitrogenous nutrients being washed and blown into the waterways. { blown by wind into waterways, alien accession} which also helps different types of bacteria to enter the waterways. As for the carbon capturing that they are trying to carry out at the moment , once they capture the carbon they say they are going to store it underground. There is no reason to store this captured carbon underground, all the carbon that they capture could easily be mixed with the sewerage effluent all over the planet to put this high source of nitrogenous nutrients back into balance before they irrigate it onto the soil or pump into the waterways. This would stop most of the algal blooms from occurring as well as stopping the water from becoming toxic.

This carbon could also be mixed with manure from stock feedlots to put it into balance before it is fed onto crops. The reason why plants leaves are eaten by insects is because the plants are taking up to much nitrogen, and if the manure is put into balance by mixing carbon with the manure before it is applied to the crops it should stop insect infestation.
Since man started using grain mono cultures he has had plagues of locusts or spur throated grass hoppers eating his crops. This is caused by the plowing into the soil of all the crops stubble then planting another crop in the same soil that has just had the stubble ploughed back into it. When this new crop starts to grow, the organic matter within the soil starts to decompose and most of the stubble that has been ploughed back into the soil is mostly soft tissue leafy matter. As it breaks down it will release lots of nitrates and ammonia into the soil.
Considering the fact that the nitrogen cycle operates at optimum rate of between 28 to 33 degrees at these temperatures lots of nitrogen is being produced in the soil and the plants that are growing in the soil will take up the excess nitrogen, which will allow the leaves of these plants to become soft and palatable easy for insects to eat.
Also if the soil has been dry for an extended period of time and is then moistened or wet by rain this moisture can stimulate the bacteria that is breaking down the organic matter and speed up the nitrogen cycle, which can also supply the plants with excess amounts of nitrogen.
As for the grass hoppers plagues their eggs will hatch at the same time as the nitrogen cycle is running high, as insect eggs also hatch at temperatures of between 28 and 33 degrees, also at these temperatures plants are taking up extra amounts of nitrogenous nutrients making it easier for the insect hatchlings to eat the plants. This is why grain growers get plagues of spur throated grass hoppers, it is not because of the actual mono culture. If the farmers put the soil into balance before they planted their crop they would not have such a problem with plagues of locusts. This also can easily be fixed.
The main problem is that people like things to break down quickly in their compost heaps and in their soil, and only soft tissued organic matter will breakdown quickly, and all this soft tissued organic matter releases lots of ammonia and nitrates into the soil.
This is a major problem for the biosphere because the planet does not operate on the nitrogen cycle it operates on the carbon cycle. If we put the compost heaps and all this soft tissued organic matter into balance before it was used for growing crops and other plants, we would have less insect attacks as well as less algae growth. All this excess ammonia and nitrates can be easily put into balance by adding carbon.

In Brazil a couple of years ago they discovered soil that had charcoal in it and this soil was growing rapidly. This is because of the charcoal containing carbon, the soil biomass likes lots of carbon to feed off, they mix it with the hydrogen to make sacrum and then they can also add oxygen and other nitrogenous nurturance to make a protein or add more carbon and hydrogen and make a carbohydrate. This does not happen in the soil that is covered in soft tissue organic matter such as grasses and manures. The soil biomass gets a very limited amount of carbon and very large amounts of nitrogen this can be remedied a number of ways either by a lightning strike starting a fire and burning off the organic matter leaving charcoal, or they can acquire some of the captured carbon that the carbon council is capturing in Victoria and putting underground. They could be using some of this captured carbon to spray on their soil and stubble to put the cropping soil into balance before they plant their next crop.

Charcoal is also a very good source of carbon; it helps that soil grow rapidly by feeding the soil boi-mass. There are lots of ways of putting charcoal into your soil over a large area; I will leave that bit up to your own imagination. If you have got healthy soil organisms you have got healthy soil. If your soil is healthy the organic matter will break down rapidly, if you have too much carbon in your soil, you will get fungi growing, nut grass growing as well as your plants maturing early. If you have these three problems in your cropping land it would be a good idea to plant legumes. Carbon does not increase the acidification of the soil or water, hydrogen increases the acidification of soil and water, P/H stands for percentage of hydrogen.

Mother earth has been using this system of the carbon to nitrogen ratio since the beginning of time it is just mans farming practices that have put everything out of balance. The only thing that is not sustainable using the carbon to nitrogen ratio is the dragging of the steel ploughs and other farming implements through the soil creating plough souls.

The End

We can survive without our male gods, but we cannot survive without our mother
earth.

Wade Mann
Po Box 756
Yeppoon
QLD
4703

CooeBay Yeppoon,Qld